Cyber Security and Emerging Threats Development Health Jordan Michael Philips Refugee Rights Syria The Middle East and North Africa

Syrian Refugees in Jordan: Loss of Free Healthcare and Recurrent Deportations

Jordan’s recent repeal of its free healthcare to Syrian refugees came as no surprise. Since the beginning of the Syrian Civil War in 2011, Jordan has become home to hundreds of thousands of Syrians refugees. The United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) records 620,000 Syrian refugee in Jordan, but Jordanian authorities maintain the actual number is more than double that.

A young Syrian Refugee receiving medical aid at the Mafraq Government Hospital

Healthcare services provided to Syrians have overburdened the Ministry’s capacity to maintain the same quality of service it used to provide for Jordanians. A perfect example is the Mafraq Government Hospital, the health facility nearest to the Zaatari Syrian refugee camp. In July 2013, only two neonatal incubators were available to Jordanians, while Syrians occupied 12. In 2011, 134 Syrian patients were being treated for cancer in Jordanian health facilities. In 2012, the number rose to 188 patients. In 2013, the net number was 230. In January 2013, 105 surgical operations were conducted on Syrian subjects, which rose to 622 operations in March. This compelled the government to increase its health expenditure by $135 million since last year to cope with the increased demand on services, with another $180 to upgrade ten health facilities in the north. The Ministry of Health has frequently blamed the United Nations and the international community for not providing enough aid. Last year, the Ministry spent $53 million on the healthcare provided to Syrian refugees, only $5 million of which was a direct contribution by the United Nations.

Mafraq Refugee Camp in Syria

Although the health sector has been the one most affected by Syrian refugees, other sectors are also suffering. Jordanian schools are overloaded. Nearly 80 schools in the north governorates have introduced an extra session per day to assimilate the large number of Syrian children enrolled in their classrooms. Jordan has also to deal with other 55,000 children not registered in any school yet who live in the refugee camps. Parents of Jordanian children have complained about the decline in the educational services. Despite the support by the UN, which amounts to $5 million, many schools have had to cut class hours in order to serve two sessions per day.

These burdens compelled the government to take a $2 billion loan from the International Monetary Fund (IMF) in 2012 to boost its economy. However, experts question the economy’s ability to rise beyond the IMF planned 3-3.5 percent growth target in the coming years, especially with a budget deficit of about 9 percent of GDP and a staggering $2.5 billion Jordan has to pay annually for fuel.

A Syrian mother and her newborn baby in a Jordanian Clinic

As the kingdom flounders in a sea of Syrian refugees, it is no wonder forced deportations have already found their way to the headlines. On December 3, 2014, Jordan deported nine Syrian healthcare workers. Earlier on September 16, the government had done the same with a group of 12 Syrian refugees receiving treatment in the unlicensed Dar al-Karama rehabilitation center in the northern city of al-Ramtha. These arrests and deportations run roughshod over the customary international law of non-refoulement, which prevents Jordan from deporting refugees.

Faced with shrinking privileges and deportations, the future does not bode well for Syrian refugees.

Michael Philips
Michael Philips is a Research Analyst at the NATO Association of Canada and an author. Michael has pursued his master’s degree in international security at the American University in Cairo and at Monterey Institute of International Studies, USA. He has published two books about political issues in the Middle East in 2009 and 2011. Before joining the Council, Michael had carried out projects for a variety of organizations and agencies, including the International Institute for Strategic Studies, UK, and the Singaporean Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Michael’s research focuses primarily on political issues in the Middle East, conflict management and resolution, and non-proliferation and disarmament