Lessons from the Canada-Spain Turbot War: A Cautionary Tale of Multilateral Governance

In 1995, Canada and Spain entered into a maritime dispute off the eastern coast of Canada. Canadian warships intercepted and seized Spanish fishing vessels not obeying the quotas of multilateral institutions tasked with fostering intergovernmental cooperation in the area. This conflict, dubbed the Turbot War, is an example of Canada use of unilateral force when multilateralism fell short. Lessons from this case should be applied to the changing Far North.

Women Make a Difference in Peace Negotiations

Melanne Verveer, who served as U.S. Ambassador for Global Women’s Issues, remarked that clashes had occurred in 31 of the world’s 39 active conflicts after peace settlements. None of the 31 cases had women involved in the peace process.